Determinants of the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality: A study of 17 European countries

Our results suggest that between-country variations in inequalities in current mortality can partly be understood from variations in inequalities in smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and poverty. Also, countries with higher national income, higher quality of government, higher social transfers, higher health care expenditure and more self-expression values have smaller inequalities in mortality.
— Recent paper by Mackenbach and colleagues